CIF sale – quality certificate held to be final and binding
Five thousand long tons of wheat were sold with this clause: “Quality: no. 3 hard amber durum wheat of US origin – quality/condition final at loading as per official certificate”.
Durum wheat contains a percentage of kernels which are vitreous and amber in colour – the greater the percentage, the higher the quality.
The US grain inspector certified the wheat as “Grade and kind 3 hard amber durum wheat”.
The wheat was on-sold by German buyers to Italian sub-buyers who complained about the quality of the wheat.
The sample taken by the inspector was re-analysed and found to fall into an inferior class of wheat.
Findings This content is restricted to site members. If you are an existing user, please login. New users may register below.
This content is restricted to site members. If you are an existing user, please login. New users may register below.